Trauma refers to events that are extremely difficult and overwhelming for individuals. Beginning to define trauma and its psychological effects is an overwhelming task. The effects of traumatic events are complex, reflecting the intricacy of the human beings who are exposed to trauma. Traumatic events involve objective or factual situations, and DSM related criteria attempt to quantify symptoms in an objective fashion. However, the way in which people experience traumatic events is highly objective, and trauma theories must allow for the reality that people construct personal meaning from their trauma experiences.
Understanding the effects of traumatic events is a complex endeavour. Trauma affects people on multiple levels, including personal, relational, social and cultural ways.
Trauma counselling involves a focus on the clients healing process and a holistic view of the person.